英语语法

简单句 -> 复合句 -> 简化复合句
目的:用更少的词的表达出更多的意思

简单句

五种基本句型

五种基本句型的的划分是根据不同动词的特性。

句型 备注
S + V John died. 不及物动词
S + V + O John killed three enemy soldiers. 及物动词
S + V + C Shaun is a doctor. Shaun is smart. 动词为”是”,即连缀动词(Linking Verb)
S + V + O + C I find the dress pretty. 补语用来描述宾语,省略了宾语与补语之间的连缀动词
S + V + O + O Shaun gave me a dog. dog并不是用来描述me的

S:主语, V:动词, O:宾语, C:补语

补语: 并不是修饰词,而是一种不可缺少的成分。

John died in World War Two.

最后的介词短语是用来修饰的,是可有可无的,它并不是补语
补语一般用在连缀动词之后,因为连缀动词本身并无意义,因此补语是对主语的描述。
补语可以是名词,也可以是形容词。

连缀动词

look, seem, appear, sound, feel, taste, trun, prove, become, make等等

动词时态

过去式: did
现在式: do/does
未来式: will do

过去式: had done
现在式: have/has done
未来式: will have done

区别在于:有没有刻意强调”完成“的状态

不定词短语

不定词是助动词的变化
不定词: 不一定是什么词类,可以当名词,形容词,副词使用。

不定词做名词时,常常带有willcan,或不确定的意味。
比如

I like to be the first. (can)
They plan to marry next month. (will)
He seems to be right. (推测)

对于本身带有否定意味的动词,后面常常用动名词。

I avoid making the same mistake twice.

动名词

动名词相对于普通名词,保留着”动作”的意味,而且有”持续性”的暗示。

Drinking is his only vice.

Idon't likeJohn's calling my girlfriend day after day.

Being invited hereisa great honor.

分词

作形容词

现在分词:有一种”正在”的暗示

A barking dog doesn’t bite.

过去分词:用一种”被动”(及物动词)或”已经”(不及物动词)的感觉

Boiled water is safe to drink. (被动)
It is gone. (已经)

从句简化

Toys made in China are much better now.
Toys which are made in China are much better now.

因为从句的主语Which和Toys重复,动词是无意义的be动词,因此可以省略。

Wounded in war,the soldier was sent home.
After he was wounded in war ….

简化的原因同上。

Having finished the day’s work, the secretary went home.
She had finished the day’s work…

形容词比较级变化

对于单音节词,适合在词尾进行变化

tall -> taller -> tallesr

对于三音节及以上的词,如果再在词尾进行变化则不好发音,因此分成两个词来处理

expensive -> more expensive -> most expensive

对于两个音节的词,有以下原则可供参考:如果词尾是典型的形容词词尾,应用两个词处理
crowded
loving
helpful
useless
famous
active

其余的变化没有限制

often -> oftener(more often) -> oftenest(most often)

最高级要加定冠词?

冠词应该是跟着名词走,出现在名词短语中的形容词,才有可能需要定冠词。

Yangmingshan is most crowded in March.
Yangmingshan is the most crowded of Taibei’s scenic spots.

as…as

John is not quite as good a student as his sister.

为什么是 as good a student 呢?
因为as后面是形容词或副词,而如果是a good student就是名词了
good-student呢? 这是复合名词作形容词,但是good是形容词,这么用是不对的。

副词

形容词用来修饰名词,而副词可以修饰任何词。

修饰名词:

Vegetables,especially spinach, are good for you.

修饰动词:

He kept quiet resolutely.

修饰形容词:

You’re utterly insane!

修饰副词:

I know your father rather well.

修饰句子:

Therefore, the file is less than perfect.

位置:
离要修饰的词越近越好,一般是放在修饰词后面,但是有时候为了突出主谓宾补这种主要元素,副词会往后挪。
当离得太远的时候可以将副词放到修饰词的前面。

条件语气

助动词的出现,使得句子产生不确定语气,成为条件语气。
助动词can/could,will/would,may/might拼法的变化并不表示时态,而是表示语气的变化。
因此在表示对过去的猜测时,应该使用完成式。

It may rain any minute now.
It may have rained a little last night.

虚拟语气

需要从“真假”和“时间”两个角度去判断。

往后推一个时间,变成过去式

If I were you, I wouldn’t do it.

(虚拟语气中,be动词都用were)

过去式 -> 过去完成式

If I had known earlier, I might have done something.

If an asteroid should hit hte earth, man could die out.